Wooden alphabet blocks on carpet


A - E
F - J
K - O
P - T
U - Z
Acute exacerbation

An event characterised by sudden, severe worsening of symptoms or an increase in disease severity1


Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood takes place


A type of medication that aims to slow the scarring and stiffening of lungs to slow disease progression2

Arterial blood gas test

A test that shows how well the lungs are working by measuring how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in the blood. This test requires that a small volume of blood be drawn from the patient3

Breathing exercises

Techniques that involve breathing in a certain way to control breathlessness and strengthen your lungs

Bronchoalveolar lavage

A procedure in which a bronchoscope (a medical instrument like a tube) is passed through the mouth or nose into the lung and fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then collected for examination4


Refers to the heart, and blood vessels

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A type of chronic disease that typically worsens over time and is characterised by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for COPD5

Clinical trials

A medical study that investigates how safe and effective a new therapy or technique is for treating a certain disease

Complementary therapy

Therapies used alongside conventional treatments that help treat symptoms and may improve overall physical and mental wellbeing

Concomitant diseases

A disease or condition that occurs at the same time as another disease or condition

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device

A device to deliver compressed air to improve sleep in people with obstructive sleep apnoea6

Coronary artery/heart disease

A disease where a waxy substance (plaque) builds up inside the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle7


A lung condition where the air sacs within the lungs (alveoli) become damaged5


Extreme weariness resulting from exertion or illness


Where inflamed tissue is replaced with scar tissue, making it thicken and become stiffer4

Finger clubbing

A symptom where the ends of the fingers become wider and rounder8

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD)

A digestive disease where stomach acid moves up out of the stomach and irritates the lining of the food pipe (oesophagus)9


A physician specialising in the management of diseases of the digestive system


A burning sensation in the chest, which can spread to the throat, along with a sour taste in the mouth

High-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT)

A test that uses a type of X-ray that produces multiple, detailed images of areas inside the body4


Rapid and uncontrolled breathing


Of unknown cause

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

A disease where there is progressive scarring or thickening of the lungs without a known cause4

Lung biopsy

The surgical removal of cells or tissue samples from the lung for examination by a pathologist10

Lung scarring

The lung tissue becomes thickened and stiff

Lung transplantation

An operation to replace a patient’s diseased lungs with lungs from a donor


A technique that helps to reduce stress and anxiety by helping to understand and manage your emotions

Music therapy

Listening to and playing music as a therapy which aims to ease the symptoms of those living with IPF

Nasal cannula

A small plastic tube or prongs that fit in the nostrils to deliver supplementary oxygen11

Obstructive sleep apnoea

A sleep disorder characterised by breathing that repeatedly stops and starts during sleep12

Occupational therapist

A specialist who helps someone recover or live with their symptoms more easily

Oxygen concentrator

A machine that removes other gases from the air to provide oxygen for oxygen therapy11

Oxygen therapy

Administration of oxygen as a medical intervention11

Palliative care

Therapy that provides relief from symptoms to help patients live more comfortably with their disease13

Power of attorney

A formal documentation when someone else is given the responsibility to manage your affairs and make certain decisions on your behalf


The worsening of a disease/condition over time


Refers to the lungs

Pulmonary function test

A group of tests used to check how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they supply oxygen to the rest of the body14

Pulmonary hypertension

A type of high blood pressure that affects the blood vessels to the lungs and the right side of the heart15

Pulmonary rehabilitation

An education and exercise programme designed to improve the quality of life for people with lung conditions16


A physician specialised in lung problems (also known as a respirologist)

Pulse oximetry

A test used to monitor oxygen levels in a patient’s blood, usually with a non-invasive sensor11

Pursed lip breathing

A breathing technique to help control breathlessness and reduce anxiety17

Rare disease

A disease that affects only a small percentage of the population

Risk factor

Something that is associated with an increased risk of disease or infection


A product that gives protection against a specific infection

Back to top
Show references Hide references
  1. 1.

    Juarez M, et al. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis – a review of current and novel pharmacotherapies. J Thorac Dis 2015; 7: 499-519

  2. 2.

    Raghu G, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An Update of the 2011 Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015; 192: e3-19.

  3. 3.

    British Lung Foundation. Blood Gas Test. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/breathing-tests/blood-gas-test Accessed July 2018

  4. 4.

    Meltzer EB, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008; 3:8

  5. 5.

    British Lung Foundation. What is COPD. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/copd/what-is-it Accessed July 2018

  6. 6.

    British Lung Foundation. CPAP machines for OSA. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-osa/cpap... Accessed July 2018

  7. 7.

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Coronary Heart Disease. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease Accessed July 2018

  8. 8.

    British Lung Foundation. Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/pulmonary-fibrosis/symptoms

  9. 9.

    National Health Service. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Available at: https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/stomach-liver-and-ga... Accessed July 2018

  10. 10.

    John Hopkins Medicine. Lung Biopsy. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/pulmonary/... Accessed July 2018

  11. 11.

    American Thoracic Society. Patient Education: Oxygen Therapy. Available at: https://www. thoracic.org/patients/patient-resources/resources/oxygen-therapy.pdf. Accessed July 2018

  12. 12.

    British Lung Foundation. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/osa?gclid=CjwKCAjw-dXaBRAEEiwAbwC... Accessed July 2018

  13. 13.

    National Health Service. End of life care. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/end-of-life-care/ Accessed July 2018

  14. 14.

    British Lung Foundation. Tests to measure your breathing. Available at: https://www.blf.org.uk/support-for-you/breathing-tests/tests-to-measure-... Accessed July 2018

  15. 15.

    National Health Service. Pulmonary hypertension. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pulmonary-hypertension/ Accessed July 2018

  16. 16.

    Raghu G, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 788–824

  17. 17.

    Borge CR, et al. Effects of controlled breathing exercises and respiratory muscle training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from evaluating the quality of evidence in systematic reviews. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014; 14:184

This site uses cookies to improve your browsing experience. By using this site, you agree to their use. Cookie Information